Friday, 26 April 2013

Become an Ethical Hacker & Cyber Security Expert : Learn the Secrets of Ethical Hacking from Mr. OoPpSs

Your Passion could be your Profession !

Learn from India's Famous Ethical Hacker Mr. OoPpSs
Inline image 1

Ethical Hacking & Cyber Security

Course Highlights

Course:Ethical Hacking & Cyber Security
Certification:Participation Certificate by i3indya™ Technologies
Study Material:Books & CD Free to each participant

Discount offer

If you have attended our workshop earlier then show your certificate and getdiscount of INR 2000/- Before 30th April. Hurry up!!

Submit your fees before 30th Apr'13 and get discount of INR 1200/- on Ethical Hacking & Cyber Security. Hurry up!!

-   For Ethical Hacking & Cyber Security (Advance Module 1)

-   Fees :        INR 10,200/- per candidate

-   Duration:   30Days/45 hrs

-   For Ethical Hacking & Cyber Security  (Advance Module 1 + Advance Module 2)

-   Fees:          INR 14,200/- per candidate

-   Duration:    40 Days/120 hrs

ADVANCE MODULE 1 - Ethical Hacking & Cyber Security

DAY                            TOPICS                                                                             DURATION     

 1                Fundamental of Ethical Hacking                          

Hacking Vs. Ethical Hacking

Types of Hackers

Skill Profile of a Hacker

Some Famous Hackers and Groups

Cyber World

Advantage and Disadvantage of Cyber world

Cyber World as a Home of hackers
                      3 Hour                        
2Overview of Cyber Law

Introduction To Cyber Law

Cyber Laws Indian

Technical Aspect Of Indian Cyber Law

IT ACT 2000 & 2008

Internet Crimes And Frauds

Cyber Law Cases In India

Organization Under Cyber Laws

Advantages Of Cyber Laws
                        3 Hour
3Information Gathering

What Is Information Gathering & Why Hackers Need This?

Types Of Information Gathering

Information Gathering Using Websites

Information Gathering Using Software

Information Gathering Using Add-Ons

Search Engines- Smart Way Of Information Gathering

Scanning And Enumeration

Tracing - E-Mail, Mobile Phone, Intruder
                         3 Hour
4Virtualization & System Cloning

Introduction Of Virtualization

Need & Use Of Virtualization


Installing OS On Virtual Machines

Networking In Virtual Machines

System Cloning


Other Tools For Virtualization
                         3 Hour
5Windows Hacking & Security (Win 8 & Win 7)

Windows OS & Security

Hacking Into System By Changing Passwords

Getting Access To System By Elevating Privileges

Finding Out The Passwords Of Windows

Bypassing The Windows Security

Hack from Guest to Admin

Password in Plain Text Directly

Hacking By USB Devices

Mitigation Of System Attacks

Setting Up A Secure System
                         3 Hour
6Password Cracking Techniques

What is Password Cracking

Types of Password Cracking Techniques

How Different Password Crackers Work

Windows Password Cracking

FTP / Network Password Cracking

Zip/ RAR Password Cracking

Doc & PDF Password Cracking

Using GPU For Password Cracking

Password Security
                         3 Hour
7Data Hiding Techniques

What Is Steganography

How Attacker Hides His Data In Images And Other Formats

How To Find Data Which Are Hidden

What Is Cryptography

Advanced Cryptography Tools

How Are Programs And Data Wrapped

Secure Measures To Protect Our Data
                         3 Hour
8Hacking By Batch Programming & Scripting

Basics Of Scripting

Languages Used In Scripting

Writing Your First Program

Malacious Program Scripting

Session Hijacking Using Batch Scripting

Data Theft Using Batch Script

Automation Using Scripting

Designing Tools Using Scripting

Developing Security Tools Using Scripting.
                         3 Hour
9Hacking by Viruses, Trojans, Keyloggers & Spywares

What is Trojan?

Trojans Attack Big Famous Cases

Types Of Trojans

Different way a Trojan Can Get Into A System

How We Create A Trojan and Control System

How Attacker Bypass Your Antivirus By Trojans

Analysis Of Trojans/Virus

How we remove Trojans Manually

Security Against Trojans
                         3 Hour
10Malware Analysis & Fake Antivirus Detections

Introduction of Malware

Types of Malware

Common Malwares In Cyber

Types of Malware Analysis

Manual Malware Analysis

Tools for Malware Analysis

                         3 Hour
11IDS, IPS and Honeypots

Overview of IDS, IPS & Honeypot

Use of IDS & IPSAssignment & Revision

Installation of IDS & IPS

Prevention & Detection

Honeypot & its Types

Implementation - Honeypots

Honeypot Tools
                        3 Hour
12Proxy Server & Virtual Private Network (VPN) Technology

Proxy And Types Of Proxies

Why Hackers Use Proxy?

How To Hide IP Address While Chatting

How To Open Block Website In College/Companies

Convert Your Machine As Proxy Server With HTTPS Proxy

Advantage And Disadvantage Of Proxy

Analyzing Proxy Bug

How Proxy Hack Your Passwords Etc

What Is Better Than Proxy

What Is VPN?

Why We Use VPN

Advantage & Disadvantage Of VPN

Free VPN

                        3 Hour
13Google Database Hacking

Introduction And Working Of Search Engines

List Of Common Search Engines On Web

Comparing And Choosing Best Search Engine

Dorks For Hacking Search Engines

Tools For Search Engines Hacking

Web Ripping

Finding Admin Pages And Weakness In Site

Security Against Search Engine Hacking
                         3 Hour
14Email Hacking & Security Issues

World Famous Big Email Hacking Cases

IIT Bombay Alumni, Anil Ambani, Rahul, Gandhi, Facebook CEO Mark Zuckerberg (Case Study)

Analysis Email Attacks (Live Demo) Manually & Automatic

Cookies Stealing (Session Hijacking) of All Big Mail Servers

Phishing Attacks ( Normal & Advanced )

Tab Nabbing Attack

Social Engineering Attack

Analyzing the Vulnerabilities of Email Servers

Analyzing Fake & Real Profiles & Email Accounts

Fake Mailing Attack

Email & Fake Profile Tracing

Hacker Email Backdoor Installing Technique For Future Accessg

Email Password Stealing By Plugins, Extensions Etc.

Email Hacking By Keylogger, Spywares & Malicious Softwares

                         3 Hour
15Facebook Hacking, Security & Forensic, 

World Famous Big Facebook Hacking Cases

Cookies Stealing of Facebook Accounts

Facebook Phishing Attacks

Facebook Tab Nabbing Attack

Facebook Social Engineering Attack

Analyzing Fake & Real Profile of Facebook

Delete Spam Messages on Facebook

Facebook Fake Messaging Attack

Facebook Tracing Method Techniques (Basic & Advanced)

Facebook Backdoor Installing Technique For Future Access

Facebook Password Stealing By Plugins, Extensions Etc.

How to find if your Facebook Account has been hacked or not

Facebook Account security with Email & SMS Notifications

How to Hack Password using Facebook Hacker

Hack Facebook account password with key logger

Facebook Security & Forensics
                      3 Hour
16Click jacking & Tabnabbing Attacks

What Is Click jacking

How Does A Click jacking Work

Facebook Like jacking

How Hacker Use Click jacking

Execution Of Malicious Code Into Machine

Possibilities Of Click jacking

Click jacking Killer - The IFRAME Buster

How Protect From Being Clickjacked
                       3 Hour
17Advanced Methodology for Privacy on Internet

Staying Safe in the Internet

Email Privacy

Malicious Link Security

Website Visit Privacy

Block Malicious Contents On Web

Antivirus Privacy

Automatic analyzing of Malicious Links

Internet Privacy Tools
                         3 Hour
18Social Engineering 

Introduction to Social Engineering

Types of Social Engineering

World's Biggest Social Engineering Cases

Web based Social Engineering

Vulnerability in Social Engineering

Analyzing a Social Engineering Attack

Security against Social Engineering
                         3 Hour
19Android Hacking, Security & Forensics

Introduction to Android

Android OS Structure

Overview of Android Apps

Android Rooting

Application Cracking of Android

Cracking PIN of Android Devices

Pattern Unlock Cracking

Android Security

Android Forensics

                        3 Hour
20Credit Card Frauds & Cases

Introduction of Plastic Money

Some Big Credit Card Cases Solved by i3indya Team

Type of Credit Card

Hacker's Credit card Theft Techniques

Online & Offline Credit Card Generators

Vulnerability In Credit Card & Payment Gateway

Big Credit Card Fraud Website on Internet

Detection of Credit Card Fraud

Security Against Credit Card Fraud

                         3 Hour
21Website & Database Hacking Attacks

Introduction of Websites & Database

Authentication Process Of Web Application

Attack on Website & Web Application

SQL Injection Attacks

PHP Injection Attacks

Java Script Injection

Scripting Attacks

RFI & LFI Attacks

                         3 Hour
22Web Server Hacking & Security

Introduction of Webserver

Types of Webserver

Setting up a Webserver

Webserver Exploits

Shell ( Control Panel ) Designing & Uploading

Web Server Routing

Backdoor Installation on Server

Server Passwords Hacking

Web Server Security Against Attacks
                       3 Hour
23Vulnerability Assessment & Penetration Testing Tools & Methodologies

What is VA & PT

Difference between VA & PT

Need of VA & PT

Penetration Testing Methodology

Types of Penetration Testing

Scope of Pen-testing

Why Penetration Testing

Manual VA-PT

Tool Based VA-PT

Reporting a VA-PT

Available VA-PT Platforms

Closed Source Platform

Open Source Platforms

Benefits of Open Source Over Closed Source

Backtrack - VA-PT

Bugtraq - VA-PT

Some Other Recommended VA-PT Tools
                       3 Hour
24Wireless Hacking & Countermeasures

Wireless Standards

Common Vulnerabilities in Wireless Devices

Encryption Standards Used in Wi-Fi

WEP Cracking WPA/WPA2 Cracking

WPS Cracking

                         4 Hour

ADVANCE MODULE 2 - Ethical Hacking & Cyber Security


25Linux Hacking & Security

Introduction To Linux OS

Installation, Configuration & Maintenance

Resetting Your Linux Password

Grub Password Hacking

FTP & SSH Password Cracking

Security Against Files

Security Against Linux Systems

IP Table Configuration ( Advance )

OS Hardening Troubleshooting
 6 Hour
26Macintosh Hacking & Forensic 

Introduction of Mac

Architecture of Mac

Mac Password Cracking without any tool

Mac Password cracking with tool

Installing Backdoor in Mac

Data Recovery in Mac

Securing Mac System
 5 Hour
27Switch & Router Devices Hacking

Introduction to Switch & Router

Vulnerabilities in Switch & Router

Exploiting Switch & Router Vulnerability

Switch & Router Password Cracking With & Without Tool

Backdoor Installation

Securing Switch & Router
 3 Hour
28Network Security & Hacking

Introduction To Networks ( LAN /WAN )

Understanding Communication Protocols

Sniffing Attacks

DOS & DDOS Attack


Firewall Configuration & Maintenance

Network Monitoring & Analysis

Logs Maintenance
 3 Hour
29Cyber Forensics Investigations & Evidence Recovery

Introduction to Forensics

Incidence Response and Computer Forensic

Windows Live Response

Linux Live Response

Web Browser Forensics

Network Forensic

Disk Imaging

Data Recovery Using Tools

Forensic Analysis & Chain of Custody Form
 6 Hour
30Audio, Video & Image Forensics

Introduction to File formats

Analyzing Files

Detecting Modified Files

Extract Hidden Data from Files

Audio & Video Enhancement

Integrity Checkin
 2 Hour
31Cyber Crime Investigation

Introduction of Cyber Crime

Need of Cyber Crime Investigation in Cyber World

Types of Cyber Crime

  - Online Crime investigation

  - Offline Crime Investigation

Solving Different Cyber Cases

  - Email Hacking Case

  - System Hacking Cases

  - Credit Card Cases

  - Privacy & Data Theft Cases

  - Fake Profile Cases

  - Software Piracy Cases

  - Pornography Cases

  - Identity Theft Cases Etc.
 4 Hour
32Case Study ( Live Demo By i3indya Team ) 3 Hour
32EXAM – Theory & Practical 

To Know more about Mr. OoPpSs visit:


  • Basics of Computer
  • Knowledge of how to use internet
  • Basics of Networking


      It is strongly recommended to bring your own LAPTOP during the training so that you can         easily practice the exercises at home


        Batches Details

            Batches                                                             Timing Schedule

        27 May to 29 June                                                          9:00 am

        3-June to   6-July                                                           12:30 pm

        10-Jun to 13-Jul                                                              4:00 pm

        1-Jul to 3-August                                                            9:00 am

         8-Jul to 10-Aug                                                              12:30 pm

    Training Centers

  • Chennai
  • Delhi
  • Hyderabad
  • Lucknow
  • Bangalore

View Complete Details Here

095 6060 5666

Thursday, 25 April 2013

Summer Training 2013 by i3indya : Exclusive Discount Offer!!

Make Your Thoughts Alive !

by Award Winning 


Embedded Systems & Robotics


Embedded Systems & Robotics
Participation Certificate by i3indya™ Technologies
Study Material
Book & CD Free to each participant
27 Projects Covered in 30 Days


If you have attended our workshop earlier then show your certificate and get discount of INR 2000/- Before 30th April. Hurry up!!
Submit your fees before 30th Apr'13 and get discount of INR 1200/- onEmbedded Systems & Robotics (Basic + Advance Module)Hurry up!!


1. For Embedded Systems & Robotics (Basic Module Only)
    Fees: INR 7,900/- per candidate
    Duration: 15 Days/45 hrs

2. For Embedded Systems & Robotics (Basic + Advance Module    Fees: INR 10,900/- per candidate
    Duration: 30 Days/90 hrs

i3indya Technologies has been Awarded 
"Best Company for Embedded System and Robotics Training of the Year 2013" - by TIME RESEARCH


BASIC MODULE - Embedded Systems & Robotics (15 Days/45 Hrs) 
Practicals Covered:


Projects Made       :   

1Introduction to i3indya & Robotics
Introduction to Embedded System
AVR Series Micro-Controllers & ATMEGA 16
Drivers & Software Installation
   3 Hour
2LED Interfacing with ATMEGA 16 – Theory
Practical 1: Glowing LEDs in a pattern of your choice
Seven Segment Displays – Theory
Practical 2: Displaying Digits on Seven Segment Displays
LED Matrix – Theory
Practical 3: Generating Patterns on LED Matrix
Practical 4: Display Alphabets on LED Matrix
   3 Hour
3LCD Interfacing with ATMEGA 16 – Theory
Practical 5: Displaying Text on LCD
   3 Hour
4LCD Interfacing Continued..
Practical 6: Scrolling Text on LCD
Practical 7: Creating Simple Animation on LCD
Project 1: Digital Clock
   3 Hour
5DC Motor Interfacing with ATMEGA 16 – Theory
L293D IC & Its Need - Theory
Practical 8: Learning Interfacing of Motor with LEDs & LCD
Practical 9: Controlling Direction of Rotation of a Motor
Stepper Motor Interfacing with ATMEGA 16 - Theory
Practical 10: Rotation in forward and backward direction
Practical 11: Controlling speed of stepper motor
Practical 12: Rotating stepper motor at given angle/distance
   3 Hour
6Working of IR Sensors – Theory
Digital IR Sensors – Theory
Practical 13: Detecting White and Black surface with Digital
IR Sensors.
Practical 14: Controlling Motor with Digital IR Sensor.
Practical 15: Calculating Speed of a moving robot.
Introduction to ADC – Theory
Analog IR Sensors - Theory
Practical 16: Measuring Distance of an object using Analog IR Sensors.
Practical 17: Controlling Motor using Analog IR Sensor.
   3 Hour
7Project 2: Line Follower Robot
Project 3: Wall Follower Robot
Project 4: Tachometer Prototype
Project 5: Visitor Counting Application
Assignment & Revision
   3 Hour
8Buzzer interfacing with ATMEGA 16 – Theory
Practical 18: Generating Beep through Buzzer
Interfacing of Temperature Sensor – Theory
Practical 19: Calibrating Sensor value with Temperature Range
Project 6: Digital Thermometer
Project 7: Temperature Controlled Fan
Project 8: High Temperature Alarm
   3 Hour
9Keypad Interfacing with ATMEGA 16 – Theory
Practical 20: ON\OFF LED\Motor\Buzzer using single key
Linear Keypad - Theory
Practical 21: Controlling Motor (ON\OFF, Direction of Rotation) using Linear Keypad
Practical 22: Writing text on LCD using Linear Keypad
Project 9: Stop Watch
   3 Hour
10Matrix Keypad Interfacing – Theory
Project 10: Keypad Operated Robot
Project 11: Mobile Phone Keypad prototype
   3 Hour
11Project 12: Password Controlled Application – ATM Prototype
Project 13: Calculator
Assignment & Revision
   3 Hour
12PWM – Theory
Practical 23: Controlling brightness of a LED.
Speaker (Monotone) Interfacing with ATMEGA 16
Practical 24: Generating different frequencies from Speaker
Practical 25: Integrating Keypad with Speaker
Practical 26: Integrating IR Sensor with Speaker
Project 14: Digital PIANO
   3 Hour
Interfacing RGB LED
Practical 27: Generating different colours from RGB LED
Practical 28: Integrating Keypad with RGB LED
Practical 29: Traffic light prototype using single LED
Interfacing LDR Sensor with ATMEGA 16
Practical 30: Colour detection using LDR sensor in Analog Mode
Project 15: Colour Changing Spy Bot using LDR & RGB LED*

   3 Hour
14Assignment & Revision   3 Hour

15   Exam – Theory & Practical                                                                             3 Hour

ADVANCE MODULE - Embedded Systems & Robotics (15 Days\ 45 Hrs)

Practicals Covered :   9
Projects Made       :   8
Major Projects       :   4


16Working of DTMF – Theory
Mobile Controlled Applications – Theory
Project 16: Mobile Controlled Robot
3 Hour
Working of Relays – Theory
Interfacing Relays with ATMEGA 16 – Theory
Practical 31: ON\OFF Bulb or Fan (100 W) from Microcontroller
Project 17: Controlling AC Appliances using Keypad
Major Project 1: Mobile Controlled AC Devices
3 Hour
18Touch Screen Interfacing with ATMEGA 16 – Theory
Practical 32: Displaying values of Touch Screen points on LCD
Practical 33: Controlling Motors\LEDs using Touch Screen
Project 18: Touch Screen Controlled Robot
3 Hour
19RF Module (Wireless Technology) Interfacing
Practical 34: Testing RF Module using LEDs
Major Project 2: Remote Controlled Wireless Robot
3 Hour
20USART Protocol – Theory
Practical 35: Writing on LCD using PC/Laptop keyboard
Project 19: PC Controlled Robot
3 Hour
21Major Project 3: PC Controlled Classroom via RF Module3 Hour
22Accelerometer Interfacing with ATMEGA 16
Practical 36: Displaying values of coordinates in LCD
Project 20: Wrist control robot
3 Hour
23Major Project 4: Wireless Chat Application between two Users3 Hour
24External/Internal Interrupts
Practical 37: Displaying External interrupt on LCD/LED
Practical 38: Displaying Internal interrupt on LCD/LED
Project 21: Digital Clock application using Interrupts
Using Internal EEPROM of Microcontroller
Practical 39: Save and load data on internal EEPROM
Project 22: EEPROM based Password controlled Application
Project 23: Daily Alarm Clock
3 Hour
25Revision & Problem Solving Session3 Hour
26EXAM – Theory & Practical3 Hour
27Project Work by Students3 Hour
28Project Work by Students3 Hour
Project Work by Students

3 Hour


1. Basic knowledge of C\C++ Programming.

2. Basics of Electronics.
3.Eagerness to learn new innovative things

 It is strongly recommended to bring your own LAPTOP during the training so that you can easily practice the exercise at home.


Batches                                                     Timing Schedule

29-Apr to 1-Jun                                           9:00  am  - 12:00 pm                                             6-May to 8-Jun                                           12:30 pm -  3:30 pm                                         
13-May to 15-Jun                                        4:00 pm -   7:00 pm                                           
20-May to 22-Jun                                        9:00  am  - 12:00 pm   
27-May to 29-Jun                                        12:30 pm -  3:30 pm   
3-Jun to 6-Jul                                              9:00  am  - 12:00 pm  
10-Jun to 13-Jul                                          12:30 pm -  3:30 pm
17-Jun to 20-Jul                                           4:00 pm -   7:00 pm                                  
24-Jun to 27-Jul                                           9:00  am  - 12:00 pm
1-Jul to 3-Aug                                             12:30 pm -  3:30 pm
8-Jul to 10-Aug                                            9:00  am  - 12:00 pm
15-Jul to 17-Aug                                          12:30 pm -  3:30 pm
22-Jul to 24-Aug                                           4:00 pm -   7:00 pm
29-Jul to 31-Aug                                          9:00  am  - 12:00 pm                                          

Tuesday, 23 April 2013

Recent Workshops and Seminars by Mr.OoPpSs

Mr. OoPpSs , a 22 year old Security Analyst & Researcher who seeded his interest in Cyber Security at a young age of 14 when his friend’s e-mail id got hacked. Today he stands as the Country’s Renown Ethical Hacker solving mind boggling cases for Government & Corporate and training the young minds on Cyber Security. 

In this post we are sharing some Photographs of his recent Seminars and Workshops. Have a look!!!

One Day Workshop on Internet Crime Investigtion & Cyber Security (With Live Demo Cases) in Jaipur National University 
Session at The Embassy of Sweden New Delhi on Internet & Cyber Security with Staff Member 

Workshop in STF (Special task Force, Dehradun)

2 Days Workshop on Ethical Hacking and Cyber Security (Live Demo Cases) in Amrita University


At Cyber Crime Cell Lucknow for 2 Days Training on CYBER CRIME INVESTIGATION & COMPUTER FORENSIC through Open Source..

 Workshop on Cyber Crime Investigation & Computer Forensic at GICTS, Gwalior 

Workshop on Internet & Cyber Security at GLA University, Mathura 

At MNIT Jaipur - 3 Days Workshop on Ethical Hacking and Cyber Crime Investigation With Live Cases. 

At NMITD, Mumbai

Workshop on Cyber Security & Cyber Crime Investigation at Ghodawat Group of Institutions ,Maharashtra 

Get Live Updates from our Ethical Hacking Blog

Benefits of i3indya Summer Training 2013

Benefits of i3indya Summer Training 2013

- Provide students the in-depth corporate knowledge of a function.
- Gives the students a change to apply into actual practice the fundamentals that they learnt in there course
- A taste of working life for students who do not have a work experience
- Helps student in deciding the kind of specialization they want to pursue.
- Learn & Interact with renowned Industry Experts.
- Practical learning based Training Program.
- Receive an unparalleled education on the art of personality development with personal one-on-one attention
- Get thorough insight into Industry Standard.
- Printed material developed by well established Industry experts.
- Hands on Demonstrations of Latest Technologies.
- Power-point Presentation, Live Demos, Interactive Question & Answer sessions and comprehensive reading material.
- Will also include personality development and Technical skills.
- Will also include Interview preparation skills.
- Placement Assistance to students attending our training.
- i3indya™ Certification is highly appreciated in Top MNC.

To Know more about i3indya Summer Training 

i3indya Helpline
+91 956060 5666

Friday, 19 April 2013

Summer Training 2013 !!! Few Seats are Left !!! Hurry Up!!

Enroll Summer Training from the Award Winner Training Provider in India
(by Time Research)

i3indya Technologies
Summer Training 2013
The courses are:
+Ethical Hacking & Cyber Security

Course Highlights

Course : Ethical Hacking & Cyber Security
Certification : Participation Certificate by i3indya™ Technologies
Study Material : Books & CD Free to each participant

For Ethical Hacking & Cyber Security (Advance Module 1)
- Fees : INR 10,200/- per candidate
- Duration: 30Days/45 hrs

- For Ethical Hacking & Cyber Security (Advance Module 1 + Advance Module 2)
- Fees: INR 14,200/- per candidate
- Duration: 40 Days/120 hrs

+Embedded System & Robotics

Course Highlights

Embedded Systems & Robotics
Participation Certificate by i3indya™ Technologies
Study Material
Book & CD Free to each participant

27 Projects Covered in 30 Days

1. For Embedded Systems & Robotics (Basic Module Only)
Fees: INR 7,900/- per candidate
Duration: 15 Days/45 hrs

2. For Embedded Systems & Robotics (Basic + Advance Module)
Fees: INR 10,900/- per candidate
Duration: 30 Days/90 hrs

Robotics Toolkit:
Free to each participant

For More Information about Summer Training

Training Centers


i3indya Helpline:
+91 - 956060 5666
Get Discount of Rs 2000 on Summer Training 2013 if you have participated in any i3indya's Workshop

i3indya is Awarded as INDIA's Best Training Provider for Embedded Systems & Robotics by Time Research.